Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Operation management - Operational Analysis - Essay Example Like any other Wal-mart store, ASDA is well known for its bargaining pricing of its products and services that it sells. It is also known for giving access and selling a wide range of products and services to its customers ranging from accessories and clothing to gardening and household equipment. Services include photography and pharmacy services. The motto of ASDA Wal-mat store Inc has been to help consumers save money and also help consumers lead a cheaper, but higher and better living standard (ASDA, 2010). The main objective of this company is to maintain excellent customer service by providing quality products at affordable prices. Another objective is to improve the sales of the store and implement productivity initiatives. The company has enjoyed a number of successes, including the ability to buy in bulk, sell products and services in huge volumes, and be able to survive on reduced on low profit margins. This has in turn helped the organization to pass on the cost benefit to the consumers and at the same time be able to give consumers more value for money which has been a crucial part of the success of the company in a highly competitive market. The paper will take an analysis of ASDA Wal-mart stores mainly concentrating on its current operations management activities. Introduction In any organization or company, operational management deals with the design and management of processes, products, services, and supply chains (BARNES, 2008). This mainly looks at the development, acquisition, and utilization of resources that are required by the organization in order to deliver goods and services to its consumers. Operational management ranges from the strategic level to the tactical level and finally, to the operational level. In other words, operational management is a function that aims at making sure that there is a smooth flow of processes to convert input into outputs in a cost effective and efficient way. There is normally demand for companies to su stain themselves and survive in a competitive market. However, there are two ways which company can adopt to which are cutting their costs or increasing their revenue. In both cases, the OM capacity of an organization is challenged. In this competitive market where competition increases all the time, a company like ASDA to implement effective operational management tools and systems in order to ensure that the production of goods and services is maintained smoothly and that the demands of customers are fulfilled quickly. OM attempts to create the desired balance between costs and revenue to get the maximum profit and at the same time maintain the quality of goods and services. Normally, big companies like ASDA have huge responsibilities to be able to keep up with the operational management activities involving capacity planning, manpower planning, acquisition, and control, scheduling, managing quality, material control, cost control, training and development for employees, and facil ity location and layout planning (LOADER, 2007). Information and Analysis Current Operations Below is an overview
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
MNC Corporation Production Assignment MNC Corporation Production Analysis of MNC Behavior Introduction Multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. Very large multinationals have budgets that exceed those of many countries. Multinational corporations can have a powerful influence in international relations and local economies. Multinational corporations play an important role in globalization (Bartlett et al). Multinational corporations can be divided into three broad groups according to the configuration of their production facilities: Horizontally integrated multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries to produce similar products. (Example: McDonalds) Vertically integrated multinational corporations manage production establishment in certain country/countries to produce products that serve as input to its production establishments in other country/countries. (Example: Adidas) Diversified multinational corporations do not manage production establishments located in different countries that are horizontally, vertically or straight (Example: Microsoft or Siemens A.G.) The paper deals with analysis of MNC behavior of three popular MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s viz. Exxon Mobile, Royal Dutch and BP. These are oil and gas companies from India and China. The paper will explain about how the products of these companies differ or are similar to each other and how their marketing strategies corporate strategies differ. All this will be explained through the Dunning O-I-L framework and Global Integration Local Responsiveness framework. This paper represents the compare and contrast studies of different strategies. About the companies MNC behavior differs across various locations and is different regarding marketing, finance, human resource and other aspects related to the products. The three companies selected for analyzing MNC behavior differ in geographical locations, political conditions, cultural considerations and legal frameworks. The general introduction of the all the 3 companies is as follows: Exxon Mobil Corporation or Exxon Mobil (NYSE: XOM): It is an American oil and gas corporation and a direct descendant of John D. Rockefellers Standard Oil company. Formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon and Mobil, Exxon Mobil is the worlds largest company by revenue at $404.5 billion for the fiscal year of 2007. It is also the largest publicly held corporation by market capitalization, i.e. $501.17 billion. While it is the largest of the six oil super majors with daily production of 4.18 million BOE (barrels of oil equivalent). Currently, the company ranks 1st in the world in net income, which was almost $40 billion last year. The Exxon Mobil Corporation global headquarters are located in Irving, Texas. The company markets products around the world under the brands of Exxon, Mobil, and Esso. It also owns hundreds of smaller subsidiaries such as Imperial Oil Limited (69.6% ownership) in Canada, and Sea River Maritime, a petroleum shipping company (Exxon Mobile Corporation 2008). Royal Dutch Shell: It is commonly known as Shell, a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. It is the second largest private sector energy corporation in the world, and one of the six super majors. The companys headquarters are in The Hague, Netherlands, with its registered office in London, United Kingdom (Shell Centre). The companys main business is the exploration, production, processing, transportation and marketing of hydrocarbons (oil and gas). Shell also has a significant petrochemicals business (Shell Chemicals), and an embryonic renewable energy sector developing wind, hydrogen and solar power opportunities (Royal Dutch Shell: About Shell 2008). BP (British Petroleum): It was previously known as British Petroleum but now using only the initials, it is the worlds third largest global energy company, a multinational oil company (oil major) with headquarters in London, UK. The company is among the largest private sector energy corporations in the world, and one of the six super majors (vertically integrated private sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies). Though, all these companies are involved in similar business practices, yet there are also certain differences among them. There is a compare and contrast scenario among these companies. To analyze these three MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s, the Ã¢â¬Å"Global Integration- Local ResponsivenessÃ¢â¬ framework and Ã¢â¬Å"DunningÃ¢â¬â¢s O-I-LÃ¢â¬ framework can be used (BP Global: About BP 2008). Similarities and Differences The products of all three companies are similar in the sense that all have natural resource seeking and efficiency seeking products. All three companies produce the same kind of products, so they also require the same kind of raw materials for the products. The products they produce are all location specific. All the companies have their established positions in the international market and are among the six super majors in the oil and gas industry. They possess abundant resource utilization capacity. They have competitive advantage, which helps them to achieve their strategic goals. The products of the companies are globally marketed. The major differences among the products of the companies are the quality and quantity of the products and the capital requirement for the products. The products also differ in the level and type of technology used and the customer demand for the product. The location where the product is manufactured is also important and it makes a big difference for the company. The export and import of the products vary from company to company. The manufacturing and innovation among the products also vary depending on the Government rules, regulations and policies in the countries in which the companies operate. The products also differ on the basis of marketing strategies used to market the product. The reason for these differences can be explained through the Ã¢â¬Å"Global Integration- Local ResponsivenessÃ¢â¬ framework popularly known as I-R model. It is generally related with ideas of value creation. It states that these differences occur because of differences in the competitive advantage of the companies and the strategies used by them. Strategies can be global, international, multinational or transnational (Bartlett et al). The risk handling capability of the companies is also one of the possible reasons for the differences among them. The proportion of the global assets, number of countries in which the company operates in value added activities and the value of the output are responsible for significant differences among the companies of the same industry (Rugman Hodgetts 1995). These differences are not general differences. These differences are responsible for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success and help it in making popular among the general public. The products of the company become known to the customers because of these significant differences and they are responsible for the growth and revenue of the company (Bartlett et al). The marketing strategies also differ between various firms and countries on the basis of the strategies used to market the products. The differences between countries occur because of alterations in the market structures among various countries with respect to the transactional costs. Differences also occur on the ground of capital availability and resource utilization. The difference in the market size is also very important. Marketing strategies differ across firms due to differences in the extent of market diversification and market stability of the firms. They differ according to the number of customers for the product and because of the market allocation for the product. The firms have set up in their respective locations because according to Ã¢â¬Å"DunningÃ¢â¬â¢s O-I-LÃ¢â¬ framework, the assets which these companies possess are ownership specific and location specific. Though, they are available to all the firms, yet they are unique in nature and help the company to establish a difference for itself. This criterion of Dunning is based on the eclectic paradigm. The assets can be tangible like manpower, capital, etc. or intangible like technology, marketing, etc. Global, International, Multinational Transnational Firms As the companies grow and develop, there category changes and they become international, global, multinational or transnational firms. As time passes, their product category also changes. Global Firms consider the world as a single integrated unit with centralized scale intensive manufacturing. Through world wide diffusion and adaptation, these companies exploit the parent companyÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and capabilities (Dunning 1993). International Firms take the overseas units as offshoots of domestic strategy. Here the core competencies are centralized and others are decentralized. It builds cost advantage through global scale operations (Dunning 1993). Multinational Firms consider the world as a portfolio of national opportunities. They are self sufficient and decentralized. Through strong resourceful national operations it creates a response to national differences. Transnational Firms comprise of all the above three firms. They are dispersed, interdependent and specialized. They have flexibility, global efficiency and great learning capability. Different Corporate Strategies The corporate strategies of the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s differ across different locations as the Government policies and regulations are different in different countries. The goals and the means to achieve them differ according to the customer size and the market adaptability in different countries. The collaborations with the local partners also create a difference in the corporate strategies because they also have their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and requirements. It also differs according to the company law of the respective countries. The terms and conditions of the local partners differ, which causes significant variations in the corporate strategy (Dunning 1993).. Innovations in MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s Innovations are a growing trend in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world and MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s are successful till they maintain their innovativeness and creativity. Innovation does not necessarily come from the home country but it can also be sourced in the local country. The MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s hire the employees of the local country so it can be possible that innovations are from the local country. Government and the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s There are differences among the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s about the Government policies and regulations. GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s encouragement or inhibition for the oil and gas industry depends on the type of country and the requirement of such an MNC in the country. There are also significant differences across various locations for the involvement of Government in the MNC activities. This depends on the need of the country to grow and develop and also on the economy of the country. This can also be explained with the help of Ã¢â¬Å"DunningÃ¢â¬â¢s O-I-LÃ¢â¬ framework. The Government involvement depends on the asset availability of the country which is location specific. Social Cultural Factors The MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s are also affected by social and cultural factors of the local country. They have to conduct the business according to the conditions in that country. The products should be manufactured according to the needs and requirements of the people. The cultural and social sentiments of the people should be taken care of. For example, when Mc DonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s started its business in India, it made beef burgers. But this was failed in India, as it was against the cultural, religious and social sentiments of the people of India, because Indians worship cows so they would never prefer a beef burger. But many a times it happens that MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s also shape the social, cultural, political and even the legal framework of the local country. The people of the local country many a times adapt to the products of the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s. For example, Pizza Hut, Dominos, etc. have totally changed the eating habits of the people wherever they have spread their business. The dressing style of the people changes, e.g. Indians started wearing western style clothes. They also convince the Government to make its legal policy flexible to suit their business conditions because the country is being benefited by the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s. The role of WTO in MNC activity WTO and regional trade agreements influence the MNC activities in many ways. The fundamental principles of WTO are non discrimination, free trade, encouraging competition and extra provisions for less developed countries. Through non discriminatory trading system, all the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s are provided with their rights and obligations to be used while performing their operations. Each country and MNC receives fair exports and fair treatment in the markets of other countries. It provides responsibilities regarding implementation of agreements, technical cooperation and increased participation in the global trading system. These agreements help in removing trade barriers and duty free access. It also helps in protecting industrial property rights and dispute settlement. The trade agreement system helps in promoting peace, provides more choices of products and qualities (Cherunilam 2005). Export processing zone refers to one or more specific areas of a country where some of the normal trade barriers are ruled out and bureaucratic necessities are let down in the desire of attracting new business and foreign investments. This zone also refers to the manufacturing centers, which are labor intensive involving the import of raw materials and the export of factory products. This zone is of great importance for the operations of MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s. Geography of production The linkages in the value chain also differ around different locations. The relationship between the various functional processes is different at different locations. The spread of production differs according to the spatial distribution. This differs according to the elements of the value chain. The working of the functional processes affects the production. It differs from firm to firm because the functional units like finance, marketing, etc. differ across firms and across various locations. So the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s production differs according to geography as the resource availability differs from place to place. Also, the human resource management, organizational structure and managerial responsibility differ between the firms and locations. These are not the same at all the places and with all the firms. The manpower availability differs from place to place and from firm to firm. Because of workforce diversity, human resource management differs and is not the same at all places. The organizational structure also differs because of each firmÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and regulations. The managerial responsibility is different depending upon the size of the firm and its working. It also depends upon the strength of the organization, type of business it deals with and the amount of work done by the organization (Cherunilam 2005). MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s also hire local people for key positions because its not possible for the MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s to hire people from the home country as it is a time consuming and costly affair. Instead of doing so, they can spend money on the training of the people in the local country. The Country Subsidiary Manager is responsible for the administration and management of the MNC in the country. He helps the MNC to recruit highly efficient and energetic people. He also helps in the growth and development of the MNC along with marketing its products. Comparison and Contrast between the Indian Market and Chinese Market for Exxon, BP and Shell The strategies in both the countries will be different for all the three companies i.e. BP, Exxon and Shell. The business environment, culture and traditions of both the companies differ from each other. The customer requirements, economic growth, political and social environment and legal obligations for both the countries can be compared and contrasted. Comparison CEOs of global energy giants BP, Exxon Mobil and Shell are thrashing out their plans with Indian companies and state government officials to pump dollars into 5 states Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Gujarat. The oil and gas giants (Exxon, Shell, BP), can enter the Indian market through Joint Ventures with the Indian companies like Reliance or any ONGC. To establish joint ventures with Indian companies for manufacturing, all the 3 companies should track the key trends and survey the competitive environment in the oil and gas industry, which will enable them to maximize their returns in India (BP, Exxon Shell may invest in 5 Indian states 2008). Currently, Indian conversion kit markets are overflowing with duplicate and inferior quality products. Manufacturers must devote adequate resources for research and development to create world-class offerings that stand apart from the competition. Producing less expensive, lighter, and stronger fuel storage tanks could help the companies establish a leadership position in the marketplace. Reinforcing innovative products with strong after-sales service will allow companies to establish a brand image (Indian Automotive Alternative Fuel Conversion Kit Markets 2001). The entry strategy for China will be different. In China, the companies can enter through Merger or strategic alliance with a Chinese oil company. The companies should do a detailed study of the Chinese market to enter into strategic alliance with the Chinese companies, their growth patterns and their position in the market. As the entry strategy in both the companies will differ because of their business environment; similarly, business strategies would also differ on the following grounds. Firstly, the customer ratio and demand differs in both the countries. China has more population than India, so it has a large consumer market than India for these companies. Secondly, as compared to China, the price hike in petrol is more in India, so the companies can earn high revenue in India (Cherunilam 2005). Thirdly, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is growing at a much faster rate than IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Fourthly, the income level in both the countries is different. Middle class population is high in India. The per capita income of China is more than India and even the disposable income in China is more. Nowadays, BP is focusing on an eco-friendly campaign, which can be a great success in India where pollution is a major problem. This way, it can easily attract customers and become popular. Fifthly, the culture of both the countries is different, which affects the strategies of the companies. India is a country of diverse cultures and customs, so people with different thinking and values are found in India. But China has cultural unity, so the values and traditions do not differ across the country. This is good for advertisement and publicity to the people. Sixthly, it is also the political and legal environment that plays a crucial role in any business. A company cannot ignore the political situation and legal formalities either in the home country or in the host country if it has to operate successfully abroad. There is a quasi-federal-form of government in India and democracy is the rule of the country. Whereas China is a communist country, so the political setup can make a difference to the strategies. Also, the legal environment differs from country to country. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s market has easy access and there are no strict regulations for the trade. In India, after the liberalization in 1991, most of the sectors are opened for foreign companies. Foreign Direct Investment is increasing rapidly. FDI policy is liberalized and 100% investment is allowed, whereas in China, there is not so much liberty for foreign companies. Only, a limited number of foreign companies can establish themselves in China. Contrast There are several points of similarities that affect the strategies of the companies in both the countries. Both the countries are in a developing stage and follow collectivism. Collectivistic culture tends to embrace interdependence, family security, social hierarchies, cooperation; and low levels of competition (Cherunilam 2005). As such, the Chinese and Indian society historically focuses on social interests and collective actions, and de-emphasizes personal goals and accomplishments. Also, the people of both the countries are dominated by foreign products and import items. Conclusion Thus, from the above discussion about MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s, it is concluded that they differ across different locations in terms of their resources, working, legal framework, etc. They also affect the culture and social life of the people of the local country. References Bartlett et al. Building Layers of Competitive Advantage. Europe: McGraw Hill Companies Inc. BP Global: About BP. 2008. [online]. [Accessed July 19, 2008]. Available from World Wide Web: BP, Exxon Shell may invest in 5 Indian states 2008. [online]. [Accessed July 19, 2008]. Available from World Wide Web: Cherunilam, F. 2005. International Business: Text and Cases. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. Dunning, J. H. 1993. The determinants of MNE activity. In Dunning, J. H., Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy: 76-85. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. Exxon Mobile Corporation. 2008. [online]. [Accessed July 19, 2008]. Available from World Wide Web: Indian Automotive Alternative Fuel Conversion Kit Markets 2001. [online]. [Accessed July 19, 2008]. Available from World Wide Web: Ramaswamy, V.S Namakumari, S. (3rd ed.) 2005. Strategic Planning Formulation of Corporate Strategy. New Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd. Royal Dutch Shell: About Shell. 2008. [online]. [Accessed July 19, 2008]. Available from World Wide Web: Rugman, A.M. Hodgetts, R.M. (1st ed.).1995. International Business. New York, McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Appendix Generic Value Chain of OPERATION OUTBOND LOGISTIC MARKETING SALES SERVICE FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROCUREMENT INBOUND LOGISTIC Secondary Activity Or Supporting Activities Primary Activities Source: Ramaswamy Namakumari 2005.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Evolution of Frankenstein Not so long ago, relative to the world at large, in picturesque Geneva not so far from Lake Leman, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley took part in a not so commonplace "contest". The contest was to write a ghost story. The outcome was Frankenstein; what is considered today to be a classic, one of the first science fiction tales, and a story immortalized many times over in film. And what at its inception was considered little more than the disturbed and ill conceived writings of a woman by some, and a noble if misplaced effort by others. Critical readings of the novel have grown over time to encompass more aspects of the critical range and to allow for a broader reading and understanding of the work which accounts for more than merely face value formal, rhetorical, mimetic or expressive theories alone. In March of 1818, the same year Frankenstein was published, The Belle Assemblee magazine reviewed Frankenstein. In its opening paragraph states "..that the presumptive works of man must be frightful, vile, and horrible; ending only in discomfort and misery to himself. But will all our readers understand this?". Clearly this reviewer is, in some part, taking into account rhetorical theories. The analysis given is in the interests of the reader, so that they might better be able to appreciate the work. As well, credit is given to formal aspects of the work, the "excellence of its style and language" as well as "its originality, excellence of language, and peculiar interest". Though this review was brief, and did little more than summarize the book for interested readers of the time, it did what many others did not, in that it focused on Frankenstein as an original work that offered something new to readers of the time. Further reviews, from sources such as Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine allowed the author, whose identity was not known for certain at the time, some small leeway in their criticisms. Though they too agreed that the formal style of Frankenstein was unique and praiseworthy, strictly mimetic theories are taken into account in matters they consider inconsistent within the novel, particularly as they pertain to the nature of the monster. It is looked upon as non-reflective of the way of the real world, that a The Evolution of Frankenstein :: Frankenstein, Mary Shelley The Evolution of Frankenstein Not so long ago, relative to the world at large, in picturesque Geneva not so far from Lake Leman, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley took part in a not so commonplace "contest". The contest was to write a ghost story. The outcome was Frankenstein; what is considered today to be a classic, one of the first science fiction tales, and a story immortalized many times over in film. And what at its inception was considered little more than the disturbed and ill conceived writings of a woman by some, and a noble if misplaced effort by others. Critical readings of the novel have grown over time to encompass more aspects of the critical range and to allow for a broader reading and understanding of the work which accounts for more than merely face value formal, rhetorical, mimetic or expressive theories alone. In March of 1818, the same year Frankenstein was published, The Belle Assemblee magazine reviewed Frankenstein. In its opening paragraph states "..that the presumptive works of man must be frightful, vile, and horrible; ending only in discomfort and misery to himself. But will all our readers understand this?". Clearly this reviewer is, in some part, taking into account rhetorical theories. The analysis given is in the interests of the reader, so that they might better be able to appreciate the work. As well, credit is given to formal aspects of the work, the "excellence of its style and language" as well as "its originality, excellence of language, and peculiar interest". Though this review was brief, and did little more than summarize the book for interested readers of the time, it did what many others did not, in that it focused on Frankenstein as an original work that offered something new to readers of the time. Further reviews, from sources such as Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine allowed the author, whose identity was not known for certain at the time, some small leeway in their criticisms. Though they too agreed that the formal style of Frankenstein was unique and praiseworthy, strictly mimetic theories are taken into account in matters they consider inconsistent within the novel, particularly as they pertain to the nature of the monster. It is looked upon as non-reflective of the way of the real world, that a
Saturday, January 11, 2020
SAFAVID EMPIRE Key Focus: 1) The Ottoman (Sunni)-Safavid (ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ite) split in Dar al-Islam 2) SafavidsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of religious extremism to inspire a following and forge an empire 3) Transition from heterodox ideology to orthodox theocracy under Shah Abbas I) The Safavid Rise to Power in Persia Ã¢â¬ ¢3 empires dominated by presence of Islam Ã¢â¬ ¢M2oguls in India, Ottoman Empire, and Safavids a) IsmaÃ¢â¬â¢il and the Messianic Ideology of the Qizilbash (warriors; Ã¢â¬Å"red headsÃ¢â¬ > their turbans) i) How did a 14 year-old establish a dynasty? Ã¢â¬ ¢Led Turkish army to capture an Iranian city it was already a vulnerable region Ã¢â¬ ¢envisioned a utopian Islamic world (1) Claim lineage from 13th century Sufi leaderÃ¢â¬âSafi al-Din (2) Reincarnation of the Ã¢â¬Å"hiddenÃ¢â¬ Twelfth Imam of ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Islam (3) Claim of divinity as the Ã¢â¬Å"God-shahÃ¢â¬ ?maybe reincarnation of Allah himself!! ii) Sufi belief in the transmission of mystical powers Ã¢â¬ ¢mayb e a redeemer figure iii) Qizilbash fanaticism Ã¢â¬ ¢sometimes went into battle unarmed; believed IsmaÃ¢â¬â¢ilÃ¢â¬â¢s power could save em Ã¢â¬ ¢the more extreme their behavior, the more they showed their loyalty to IsmaÃ¢â¬â¢il b) The Safavid-Ottoman Conflict SafavidÃ¢â¬â¢s were intent on spreading their Qizibash religions i) Clash of Heterodoxy vs. Orthodoxy (1) Safavids intent on spreading their Sufi/ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ite ideology ? Ottomans had control over Mecca ?Safavid discouraged pilgrimage to Mecca to undermine OttomanÃ¢â¬â¢s rule (2) Ottoman Selim the GrimÃ¢â¬â¢s claim as the Ã¢â¬Å"exterminator of idolatorsÃ¢â¬ ? referring to Safavid ?made it his primary goal to eliminate Safavid (3) Battle of Chaldiran (Kaldi-ran) 1514 ?slave armies were formidable; used firmarms ?forced to retreated to center of their empire ii) Geopolitical consequences 1) Interruption of the MediterraneanÃ¢â¬âMiddle Eastern commercial network iii) Changes in Safavid Policies (1) Adoption of more conservative brand of Ã¢â¬Å"Imamite ShÃ¢â¬â¢iaÃ¢â¬ II) Safavid Consolidation under Shah Abbas I (r. 1588-1629) a) Securing the Empire oAdopted ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Imam/not so extreme ofanaticism is good for GOING to power, but not conservative o1588 o1590, established impressive i) Military Reorganization Ã¢â¬ ¢reorganized army (1) Ghulam system ?recruited; much better organized and loyal army (2) Alliances with Europeans to counter Ottoman advance ?first, with Portuguese, but almost always about arms i) Promote commerce (1) New capital in Isfahan as a cosmopolitan center of trade ? openly invited Euro and Asian merchants; and Christian missionaires ? became incredibly worldy and diverse ?Ã¢â¬Å"to see Isfahan is to see half the worldÃ¢â¬ (2) Secured trade routes within the Safavid realm b) Pragmatic ruler Ã¢â¬Å"both feared and lovedÃ¢â¬ i) Ruler in the Machiavellian vein? Ã¢â¬ ¢he did everything ideal of Machiavellian prince (1) Pragmatist not ideologue ?skilled in st atecraft and diplomacy ?close eye on suspicious stuff ?very Ã¢â¬Å"hands-onÃ¢â¬ ?good on theological discourse (2) Manipulation of his public imageÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"Shah of the PeopleÃ¢â¬ ? ffect sovereign must project to his people to be feared and loved ? highly visible; mingled with the common people ?made it a point to be humble and scruple Ã¢â¬ ¢wore simple linens; not silks (3) Ã¢â¬Å"More feared than lovedÃ¢â¬ ? ?played no favorites ?no patience for flatterers ?ruled effectively and decisively ii) Religious Policies (1) Father SimonÃ¢â¬â¢s report to Pope Paul V in 1605 (2) Purged of the Qizilbash iii) Symptoms of decline after Shah Abbas (1) Increasing intolerance towards other Muslim sects (2) Greater persecution of non-Muslims ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a imam was more tolerated; even SunniÃ¢â¬â¢s were persecuted .
Friday, January 3, 2020
Demography is the statistical study of human populations. It includes the study of the size, structure, and distributions of different populations and changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging, and death. It also includes the analysis of the relationships between economic, social, cultural, and biological process influencing a population. The field of sociology draws on huge bodies of data generated by a variety of sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau. Demography is widely used for various purposes and can encompass small, targeted populations or mass populations. Governments use demography for political observations, scientists use demography for research purposes, and businesses use demography for the purpose of advertising. Statistical concepts essential to demography include birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate, fertility rate, and life expectancy. These concepts can be further broken down into more specific data, such as the ratio of men to women and the life expectancy of each gender. A census helps provide much of this information, in addition to vital statistic records. In some studies, the demography of an area is expanded to include education, income, the structure of the family unit, housing, race or ethnicity, and religion. The information gathered and studied for a demographic overview of a population depends on the party utilizing the information. From the census and vital statistics gathered using a wide variety of sources, sociologists can create a picture of the U.S. population Ã¢â¬â who we are, how we are changing, and even who we will be in the future.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Human development is an active process resulting from interactions between an individual and their environment. The processes involved in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s development and overall life outcomes are complex, everchanging, and unique. Given the complexity of human development, the central tenets of my professional conceptual foundation of development include biological factors inherent in the individual, psychological influences, and social interactions. Thus, my professional perspective can best be explained by a synthesis of theoretical foundations based on biological contributors to human development and behavior, SameroffÃ¢â¬â¢s transactional ecological model, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development, BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of early relationships, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Additionally, studies show that imbalances in neurohormones relate to psychiatric disorders, learning disabilities, and aggressive behaviors (Ecker et al., 2015; Fairchild et al., 2012; Gied d et l., 2014), all of which will relate to the life experiences an individual with any of these ailments has. While my professional perspective of development considers biological influences, how these factors interact with environmental contributors can determine the negative or positive impacts on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental progress and life outcomes. The transactional ecological model (Sameroff, 2010) emphasizes the complexity of child development and the vast number of environmental factors that influence life outcomes. Commonly, a multitude of factors contributes to behavioral, emotional, or developmental disturbances in children rather than a single force. This model places equal emphasis on the child and the environment, and how these elements interact with each other, not independently. The model recognizes the impact of social class, gender, education, socialization, family beliefs and values, the psychological well-being of caregivers, parent/caregiver practices, family dynamics, interpersonal relationships, and how these factors interact with each other to shape an individual. Overall, this theory explains that human development and life outcomes emerge from a combination of individual differences and life experiences. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of earlyShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Human Development Theory1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman development theories are theories intended to account for how and why people become, as they are. These theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behavior. It is important to recognize the complexity of human development and the theories that explain human development. (Berger, pg. 23). The three theories that have influenced by development are Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Cognitive Theory, Abraham MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Humanism and Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreTheories And Theories Of Human Development1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages10/11/17 Principles of Human Development Paper #1 The concepts and theories of human development are important for a school counselor to have knowledge on. Knowledge on these topics can aid the counselor in better understanding the circumstances of their students. There are three main developmental sections which will be discussed in this paper. Those three include physical development, cognitive development, and social development. Each section contains multiple theories and concepts that wouldRead MoreThe Theories Of Human Development774 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTheories of Human development are relevant and matter in the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ . In my clinical practice as a psychologist-in-training, I have found human development theories to be very useful in conceptualizing and understanding my clientÃ¢â¬â¢s distress. I used theoretical frameworks that are based on theories of human development to guide my interventions in therapy. For example, as a brief psychodynamic clinician, I look to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of anxiety to und erstand how distress was developed for my clientsRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTheories of human development deliver a framework to deliberate human growth, development, and learning. Understanding the theories can deliver useful contents into individuals and society a set of principles and concepts that describe life span development. Development perspectives are the psychoanalytic theory, behavior theory, humanistic approach and cognitive theory. Each theory focuses on different aspects of human development. The psychoanalytic is Ã¢â¬Å"the approach stating that behavior is motivatedRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAssociation 2009 define biopsychosocial as Ã¢â¬Å"the systematic integration of the biological, psychological and social approaches of the study of mental health and specific mental disorders (p.48).Ã¢â¬ The human lifespan is primary base of the human grow process that start with the reproduction , the process of the human body, the brain and internal organs that are developing during the pregnancy, birth, early, middle, and late childhood, adolescence, early, middle, and late adulthood until the end of life. AdditionallyRead MoreThe Theory Of The Human Development993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPart 1: Of the four major psychological theories (ecological, behavioral, humanistic, psychoanalytic), which one(s) is/are most closely aligned with your personal belief system? All four major Psychological theories are very significant, but based on my reading about all of them, I can convey that the ecological theory is the most closely aligned with my personal belief system. Part 2: Why? I chose this theory because it states that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s development is influenced by everything in the surroundingRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development2064 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe life span theories is about four different theories; the psychoanalytic, behaviourism, cognitive and humanistic. Erikson has some similarities with Freud however it is extremely different in other ways. Rather than Erikson focusing on sexual interest as a driving force in development, he believed that social interaction and experience played a decisive role. Erikson has an eight stage theory of human development which describes the process from birth to death and the crisis of each stage bringsRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development2240 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction The concept of human development has been explored and researched by many psychologists and scholars for centuries through the entire human history. The research done by this group of people has found out a lot about human deve lopment. This is a topic that concerns every member of the society and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why researchers are interested in it. Development is a topic that can be viewed from different angles. For instance, there are economists who understand human development based on a personÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development Essay1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman Ã¢â¬ËdevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢ does not exist in stasis Ã¢â¬â it is constantly in flux. The outcomes of human development are intrinsically linked to overarching power structures, and include psychological dimensions including social recognition. Thus, Ã¢â¬ËdevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢ is dynamic and highly contextualised Ã¢â¬â it is governed by socio-economic class, domestic politics, geographical location, and the wider institutional context. Working within a particular framework requires acknowledging that concepts of human developmentRead MoreHuman Development Theories Essay1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman Development Theories In addition to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychodynamic theory there are four other human development philosophies; biological, cognitive, behavioral and systems model. Even though these theories differ they all contain the same basic assumptions. People will continue to grow. People exhibit both stability and flux as they pass through life. People are holistic, of mind body and spirit. Lastly, individual people must be understood in the context of relationships and setting (Cash White,
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Eighteen year old people should be allowed to drink alcohol. When our 18th birthday roles around we become of legal age. We sign for the draft and become eligible to fight for our country. Its possible now to be charged as an adult and spend life in prison and we can now purchase tobacco products and all other drug paraphernalia. I cant drink beer though, I must wait till my 21st birthday. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;As a teenager who recently turned 18 and is now of legal age my point is valid. Underage drinking becomes more of a problem day by day and we cant seem to stop it. Liquor stores check IdÃ¢â¬â¢s and underage kids still seem to be able to get their hands on liquor and beer. If a fake I.D does not work then an older sibling, friendÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As much as we would like to stop this problem, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t. The only way to stop this problem is by lowering the drinking age. Many fear that the problem will heighten and become uncontrollable. However, I disagree in a sense where kids will become more responsible and not have to hide their habits and break the law to enjoy a fun-filled night. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The age of 18 just seems more reasonable. As we turn 18 we become legal adults who have access to all that is out there, except alcohol. Are the effects worse after drinking liquor when your underage rather than 21? Absolutely not. Regardless of your age alcohol will still get you drunk, therefore, a legal adult should be able to consume alcohol. Yes, kids tend to drink to get drunk and not casually drink but if you think about it economically liquor stores will benefit greatly. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Is underage drinking truly that bad? Would the government rather see us with a beer in my hand or a joint? As legal adults we can enter bars, clubs, and other areas where liquor is served but unfortunately cannot join the atmosphere in its drinking stage. There is no reason for this. No, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not an alcoholic or either is half the kids that like to get drunk at college parties or even on weekend nights. Yes, we are young, but we are considered legal adults as well. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Adults by nature can drink liquor freely. Eighteen year olds should be allowed to consume liquor. The termShow MoreRelatedThe Themes Listed Under Functional Age1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesResearch and Analysis The research analysis will now discuss the themes listed under functional age. It will elaborate on how biological, psychological and sociological factors contribute towards describing the definition of what it is to be old. As stated in my introduction, functional age has advantages over chronological age by better measuring the capabilities of an individual. Seniors are often stereotyped and underestimated that has led it to being generalized across the elder population.Read MoreAdolescent, Pre Teen And Under Age Drinking Essay1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAdolescent, Pre-Teen and Under Age Drinking Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the serious problems and concerns associated with adolescent, pre-teen and underage drinking. Central Idea: Three things that my audience will learn about adolescent, pre-teen, underage drinking are as follows: Risk Factors that may cause underage alcohol use and abuse, Prevention of underage alcohol use and abuse, and the Benefits of not participating in underage alcohol use and abuse. I. Introduction: CONFUSIONÃ¢â¬ ¦FORGETFULLNESSÃ¢â¬ ¦ARGUMENITIVENESSÃ¢â¬ ¦LOSSRead MoreHomeless Adolescents Under The Age Of Eighteen2409 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesSeparate Shelters are needed for Homeless Adolescents under the age of Eighteen. 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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), aboutRead MoreChild Soldiers And Children Under The Age Of 181419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"For child soldiers, everyday is a living nightmareÃ¢â¬ (Chatterjee, 2012). Child soldiers are children under the age of 18 who are used in the military for any source of benefit. Child soldiers worldwide have become a huge issue, leading to many unnecessary deaths as well as lifelong mental trauma. According to Ã¢â¬Å"For Child Soldiers, Every Day is a Living NightmareÃ¢â¬ 90% of the child soldiers in Liberia show post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as 65% showing depression post-war. DevelopingRead MoreMy Proposal For Children Under The Age Of Six980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesYi Qu Dr. Anne Heintzman 2014/10/30 Word Count: 980 Competitive Analysis Introduction My proposal is for helping children under the age of six in China stand to benefit from increased access to high quality preschool education. Since 1979, the one-child policy has been in effect for 30 years in China. The first generation of single child are now growing into childbearing age. The one-child policy in China is altering family roles and child-rearing practices, raising concerns about the possible harmfulRead MoreThe Effects Of Pertussis On Infants Under The Age Of One Essay728 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesinfants under the age of one in Bell County. As mentioned earlier, pertussis is given to infants at the age of two, four and six months (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Even though, a number of the infants acquire this immunization, their immunity still lacks. In 2012, there was a report of 21 confirmed cases in the local area of pertussis and 20 that were unconfirmed (Fort Hood Sentinel, 2012). There was a confirmation that pertussis was seen in children und er the age of one. AdditionallyRead MoreThe Rates Of Young Women Under The Age Of 212315 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCarolina Central University Graduate Studies- Department of Criminal Justice Research Methods Paper Olivia Simone McDonald Purpose/ Background The purpose of this research is to identify and determine if The Rates of Young Women Under the Age of 21 Who Are Taken for Involuntarily Prostitution by Human Traffickers in the United States is Rapidly Increasing.Ã This methodology will include the Purpose/Background, Research Hypotheses, Research design, Sampling, Mode of Data Collection, andRead MoreReducing Pertussis Children Under The Age Of One Years1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReducing Pertussis in Children under the Age of One Years Healthy People 2020 The group chose to focus on the pertussis immunization in infants. Infants are the most vulnerable when it comes to communicable diseases. Though many children under the age of one year stay home during the day, they can be considered at high risk just as those that attend other daycare and child care settings. This is because older siblings can carry home illness that can be contracted by the infant as easily as beingRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency Is Committed By A Minor Under The Age Of 18979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJuvenile delinquency refers to a status offense that is committed by a minor under the age of 18. Status offenses include crimes against property, for example, vandalism or stealing, physical violence against others for example, aggravated assault, murder, other crimes such as drug abuse violations, curfew and loitering, and driving under the influence; and sexual crimes for example sexual assault or rape (Enginurt, Ozer, Demir, Yildirim, Cankaya, 2014; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency