Monday, May 25, 2020
In China and India alone, an estimated 2 million baby girls go missing each year. They are selectively aborted, killed as newborns, or abandoned and left to die. Neighboring countries with similar cultural traditions, such as South Korea and Nepal, have also faced this problem.Ã What are the traditions that led to this massacre of baby girls? What modern laws and policies have addressed or exacerbated the problem? The root causes of female infanticide in Confucian countries like China and South Korea are similar to, but not exactly the same as, predominantly Hindu countries such as India and Nepal. India and Nepal According to Hindu tradition, women are lower incarnations than men of the same caste. A woman cannot obtain release (moksha) from the cycle of death and rebirth. On a more practical day-to-day level, women traditionally could not inherit property or carry on the family name. Sons were expected to take care of their elderly parents in return for inheriting the family farm or shop. Daughters had to have an expensive dowry to get married; a son, on the other hand, would bring dowry wealth into the family. A womans social status was so dependent on that of her husband that if he died and left her a widow, she was often expected to commit sati rather than going back to her birth family. As a result of these beliefs and practices, parents had a strong preference for sons. A baby girl was seen as a robber who would cost the family money to raise and who then would take her dowry and go to a new family when she got married. For centuries, sons were given more food in times of scarcity, better medical care, and more parental attention and affection. If a family felt like they had too many daughters and another girl was born, they might smother her with a damp cloth, strangle her, or leave her outside to die. Effects of Modern Technology In recent years, advances in medical technology have made the problem much worse. Instead of waiting nine months to see the babys sex at birth, families today have access to ultrasounds that can tell them the childs sex just four months into the pregnancy. Many families who want a son will abort a female fetus. Sex determination tests are illegal in India, but doctors routinely accept bribes to carry out the procedure. Such cases are almost never prosecuted. The results of sex-selective abortion have been stark. The normal sex ratio at birth is about 105 males for every 100 femalesÃ because girls naturally survive to adulthood more often than boys. Today, for every 105 boys born in India, only 97 girls are born. In the most skewed district of Punjab, the ratio is 105 boys to 79 girls. Although these numbers dont look too alarming, in a country as populous as India, that translates to 49 million more men than women as of 2019. This imbalance has contributed to a rapid rise in horrific crimes against women. It seems logical that where women are a rare commodity, they would be treasured and treated with great respect. However, what happens in practice is that men commit more acts of violence against women where the gender balance is skewed. In recent years, women in India have faced increasing threats of rape, gang rape, and murder, in addition to domestic abuse from their husbands or their parents-in-law. Some women are killed for failing to produce sons, perpetuating the cycle. Sadly, this problem seems to be growing more common in Nepal as well. Many women there cannot afford an ultrasound to determine the sex of their fetuses, so they kill or abandon baby girls after they are born. The reasons for the recent increase in female infanticide in Nepal are not clear. China and South Korea In China and South Korea, peoples behavior and attitudes today are still shaped to a large degree by the teachings of Confucius, an ancient Chinese sage. Among his teachings were the ideas that men are superior to women and that sons have a duty to take care of their parents when the parents grow too old to work. Girls, in contrast, were seen as a burden to raise, just as they were in India. They could not carry on the family name or bloodline, inherit the family property, or perform as much manual labor on the family farm. When a girl married, she was lost to a new family, and in centuries past, her birth parents might never see her again if she moved to a different village to marry. Unlike India, however, Chinese women do not have to provide a dowry when they marry. This makes the financial cost of raising a girl less onerous. Effects of Modern Policy in China The Chinese governments One-Child Policy, enacted in 1979, has led to gender imbalance similar to Indias. Faced with the prospect of only having a single child, most parents in China preferred to have a son. As a result, they would abort, kill, or abandon baby girls. To help alleviate the problem, the Chinese government altered the policy to allow parents to have a second child if the first one was a girl, but many parents still do not want to bear the expense of raising and educating two children, so they will get rid of girl babies until they get a boy. In some regions of China in the last decades, there could be roughly 140 men for every 100 women. The lack of brides for all of those extra men means that they cannot have children and carry on their families names, leaving them as barren branches. Some families resort to kidnapping girls in order to marry them to their sons. Others import brides from Vietnam, Cambodia, and other Asian nations. South Korea In South Korea, too, the current number of marriage-age men is much larger than the available women. This is because South Korea had the worst gender-at-birth imbalance in the world in the 1990s. Parents still clung to their traditional beliefs about the ideal family, even as the economy grew explosively and people became wealthy. As a result of increasing wealth, most families had access to ultrasounds and abortions, and the nation as a whole saw 120 boys being born for every 100 girls throughout the 1990s. As in China, some South Korean men began bringing in brides from other Asian countries. However, it is a difficult adjustment for these women, who usually dont speak Korean and dont understand the expectations that will be placed on them in a Korean familyÃ¢â¬âparticularly the enormous expectations around their childrens education. Prosperity and Equality as Solutions South Korea, however, became a success story. In just a couple of decades, the gender-at-birth ratio has normalized at about 105 boys per 100 girls. This is mostly a result of changing social norms. Couples in South Korea have realized that women today have more opportunities to earn money and gain prominence. From 2006 to 2007, the prime minister was a woman, for example. As capitalism booms, some sons have abandoned the custom of living with and caring for their elderly parents. Parents are now more likely to turn to their daughters for old-age care. Daughters are growing ever more valuable. There are still families in South Korea with, for example, a 19-year-old daughter and a 7-year-old son. The implication of these bookend families is that several other daughters were aborted in between. But the South Korean experience shows that improvements in the social status and earning potential of women can have a profoundly positive effect on the birth ratio. It can actually prevent female infanticide.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The discussion composed by Jessica Lynn was significantly insightful regarding the issues of the transgender community. For one thing, when it came to injustices in the justice system, I believed the limit was the race of the individual. However, Jessica Lynn`s unfortunate story about her being removed from her son s birth certificate based solely on her gender identity is heartbreaking and surprising. Jessica Lynn`s presentation added to my understanding of how being transgender does not guarantee a fair advantage in the justice system as well. Biased and unfair justice system, can critically disadvantage anyone who is not living a Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ or accepted lifestyle. Moreover, her presentation made me realize that their feelings and desire to transition began during the early childhood development. Personally, it was believed that their desire to transition began at during the adolescent stage of life. As discussed in class, social stratification refers to the organization of social hierarchies, and those who are higher in the social hierarchy have more access to resources and luxuries. Stratification is also known as a Structured Inequality, which can disadvantage those based off of their race, sex, and gender. In Jessica Lynn`s case she was more than capable to physically and psychologically care for her youngest son. However, despite her ability to care for her son, she was not granted the ability to have any form of custody of her son due to the fact thatShow MoreRelatedA Comprehensive Look At Information Regarding The Transgender Community1420 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOver the course of this paper, we will take a comprehensive look at information regarding the Transgender community issue in reference to four key sociology concepts. First, we will review information highlighti ng how transgender people come to the forefront of the public eye as well as the bathroom use uproar sweeping the nation. Next, we will review facts showcasing how transgender people go against the social norm of associating gender with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s given birth sex. Thirdly, we will review informationRead MoreEthical Dilemmas : I Am Cait1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestransition as a transgender woman. The Vanity Fair issue also included an interview style article, as well as other insight into JennerÃ¢â¬â¢s life as Caitlyn. Many people reacted in a positive way congratulating the courage it took to come out in such a public way, while others instantly began to criticize Jenner and her motives. Caitlyn created a conversation about the transgender community that she was joining, a community that has been suffering with a lack of voice when it comes to transgender rights andRead MoreThe Issue Of Gender Equality790 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne of the newer issues that are facing schools today is accommodating transgender students. The Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972 states: Ã¢â¬Å"Prohibition against discrimination; exceptions. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistanceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This is talking about gender equality in schools. This means that a schoolRead MoreAs Times Are Modernizing The Ideology That One Must Be1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthere were very few H.R. transgender policies provided by US employers. As the years have gone by and almost twenty years later more and more Human Resource policies are being adopted and implemented in defense of not only those who in the lesbian or gay community, but for those with gender identity and/or expression that differs from that of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s birth-specifically transgender to fight against discrimination and inequality in the workplace. Transgender issues are particularly importantRead MoreJoe Is A Fifteen-Year-Old Boy Whom Is In The Process Of1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgoing through the non-passing phase of transitioning into a transgender individual. Lately, there has been heavy discussion on the rights of transgender individuals to use public facilities. These thoughts and conversations have been bubbling in the past few months since President Trump took office in January. Gender-neutral restrooms is a large topic discussed in society today. My research project is going to discuss the transgender community and gender queer individuals that struggle with gender segregatedRead MoreInward Struggle Of Coming Out Methodology1344 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOut-Methodology Methods The transgender community continue to battle the acknowledgment of independent identity within society. The ongoing problem has been the continued gender crisis with mistaken the identity of transgender as the same as gay or lesbian sexuality. Gay is a term commonly used to refer to homosexuals, but transgender is the state in which a personÃ¢â¬â¢s gender identity does not match with his/her physical sex (Gay Couple Fertility Care, 2015, p. 1). Transgender people may identify as heterosexualRead MoreEssay Questions On Transgender Issues1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBrainstorming Record Group Topic: Transgender Issues in Hamilton. Group Members: Victoria, Milica, Yasmeen Mickey Process Overview 2) a) We started to tackle this process by creating a concept map. Instantly we began talking about broader topics about Transgender issues, then we furthered researched more information about these broader topics, to get an understanding of which one we were most interested in. Finally, we took these broad topics and narrowed them into three individual sectionsRead MorePersonal Experience: Being a Transgender is not Matching the Traditional View of Man and Women1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor a person to identify themselves. For myself, being transgender means not matching the traditional view of male or female including being transsexual or a cross-dresser. Because society only thinks about gender being based on our sexual organs given to us at birth, it is imperative that we explore societyÃ¢â¬â¢s need to except the transgender lifestyle further. We will do this by first, exploring two problems surrounding the T of the LGBT community. Second, we will explore two of its causes, before finallyRead MoreThe LGBT Community: The Need for an Anti-Discrimination Bill720 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe need for an anti-discrimination bill for members of the LGBT community is large and the discrimination against LGBT identifying individuals extends far past the workplace and into the homes and communities. Only 11 states currently provide transgender victims with protection under hate crimes. In all other states, violent crimes against transgender individuals are prosecuted without a hate crime enhancement. Transgender individuals often find it hard to find employment and feel safe. Due to theRead MoreMedia Portrayal of Transgender Characters Essay example964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdepiction of transgender women characters in mainstream television has been offensive, insulting and derogatory. An article from GLADD called Ã¢â¬Å"Victims or Villains: Examining Ten Years of Transgender Images on TelevisionÃ¢â¬ , examines 102 episodes and storylines on mainstream televisio n that contained transgender characters since 2002. Of these, more than half were characterized as containing negative representations of transgender. In 2007 only 1% of television series had a recurring transgender character
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Nike and International Labor Practices Nike has long been known as the only brand of shoes to wear. Since its inception in the early 1970s, teenagers have seen the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"swooshÃ¢â¬ as a mark of cool. With their celebrity endorsements with people like Tiger Woods, kids have wanted the shoes so that they could be like their sports star. Nike was headed to the top rung of the athletic shoe industry until it hit trouble in the 1990s with news leaking out about labor violations in its factories overseas. Executive Summary NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s company strategy is a clever one. One that founder Phil Knight thought of while still in school at Stanford. Instead of paying Americans to put together NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes, Knight thought that it would be a betterÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Threat of New Entrants Up until 1997, Nike did not have to worry about new companies taking away much, if any, of its market share. With NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s clever marketing scheme to ingrain the brand nameÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"swooshÃ¢â¬ into every person in America with the use of huge sports stars, no company stood to make any dent in NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. But when America found out that their beloved shoes were being made by 12-year-olds being paid $2.50 per day in Indonesia, many turned anti-Nike and no longer promoted the Ã¢â¬Å"swooshÃ¢â¬ (Glenn). This is when new symbols like AdidasÃ¢â¬â¢s three stripes logo came into public view. These other brands started to take away some of NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s market sh are and these new logos began to be seen all over America in place of NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s. Buyer Power The nineties were a time where NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s potential customers showed how much power they have over Nike. When word got out about NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of underage workers and the bad conditions they are forced to work in, its customers decided to not buy NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s products and consequently, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues fell sharply. People discovered that a typical Nike shoe costs only $22.50 for Nike to make and they sell it for close to $100 while paying the laborers who made the shoes not even enough to live on. Stories of people being killed in NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s overseas factories and working in conditionsShow MoreRelatedNike And International Labor Practices1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHitting the Wall: Nike and International Labor Practices Nike is one of the most popular and successful footwear brands, and there are many manufacturing factories in different countries. In this case, it talks about NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s international labor practice between1980s to 1990s. At the beginning of the case, it mentions Nike started to attract teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ attentions in 1970s, besides that, NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue reached the first highest peak in 1980s by increasing not only the footwear styles but also the celebrityRead MoreHitting the Wall: Nike and International Labor Practices1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1) Which criticisms leveled against Nike do you consider to be fair? Explain. Nike s corporate practices are good indicators that the company is only interested in exploiting low wages in third world countries. This is indicated by investing in these countries through worker training or human resource investment but has continually shifted its operation to the country with a lower wage. Nike is in control of its subcontractors Ãâ" They dictate the price of a shoe and the cost of operation toRead MoreUnethical Business Practice: Nike1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplays a major role in these challenges that are faced by Nike. As we know that government laws and regulations differ from country to country and this makes manufacturing of products very difficult challenge for the international companies like Nike. The host governments have laws concerns against consumer protection, information and labeling, employment, wages and salaries and safety of the workers who work in those firms. The international organizations must keep these rules and regulations in theirRead MoreEthical Companies with Unethical Practices Essay1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthical Companies with Unethical Practices Introduction American business should not be permitted to claim it is an ethical firm if it ignores unethical practices by its international suppliers. For the purpose of this assignment I will use the Nike Company to highlight its unethical practices. Despite the popularity of Nike in the American market, it has been accused of exploiting employees abroad. The corporate social responsibility stipulates that a company should maximize its profit and minimizesRead MoreChild Labor During A Nike Factory1666 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCHILD LABOR IN A NIKE FACTORY IN PAKISTAN Abstract This paper especially focuses on the problem of Child Labor in Pakistan with respect to the case of the world-renowned sports brand Nike and its use of children in its factories in Pakistan. A set of laws that can be established to eradicate this evil from Pakistan have been elaborated upon in the paper, these proposals include the Trafficking Victim Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA), the International Human Right Treaty by the General AssemblyRead MoreEssay Nike- Ethical Issues1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis: Nike Introduction Nike was established in 1972 by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight. These two men were visionaries. The goal for Nike was to carry on BowermanÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy of innovative thinking by helping every athlete reach their goal or by creating lucrative business opportunities that would set the company apart from any competition. This included providing quality work environments for all who were employed by Nike. Read MoreNike: the Sweatshop Debate Essay1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNike: The Sweatshop Debate MGT/448 May 31, 2010 Instructor: Adrianne Ford Nike: The Sweatshop Debate The purpose and intent of this paper is to describe the legal, cultural, and ethical challenges that face the Nike Corporation in their global business ventures. This paper will also touch on the roles of the host government and countries where Nike manufactures their products and the author will summarize the strategic and operational challenges that Nike managers face in globalization ofRead MoreCross Cultural Perspective Ã¢â¬â Nike Corporation Essay1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPerspective Ã¢â¬â Nike Corporation In this essay, I will attempt to present an analysis of the ethics and social responsibility issues that an organization can face when it is a global organization. One of the most recognized organizations globally would without a doubt have to be the Nike Corporation. Several years ago the Nike Corporation came under fire for using child labor in Pakistan and Cambodia to make their soccer balls. Because Nike came under fire for this unethical and inhumane practice, the organizationRead MoreOutsourcing Practices of Adidas, Converse, Nike, and Reebok1079 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOutsourcing Practices of Adidas, Converse, Nike and Reebok Introduction Apparel and shoe manufacturers continued to offload the more costly yet easily replicated part so their business models to concentrate on brand building, marketing, sales and attaining greater distribution channels globally. These are the pressures all apparel and shoe manufacturers face, and it is particularly challenging in the athletic show industry (Kynge, 2009). Adidas, Converse, Nike and Reebok have been outsourcingRead More Leadership Ethics and Culture Essay1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprogram. In other words, Siemens leadership chose to ignore their established ethics and compliance program which created an unethical environment. Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) a subsidiary of Halliburton headquarters in Houston, Texas is an international, technology-based engineering and construction company. The company provides a full spectrum of industry-services to the hydrocarbon, chemical, energy, forest products, and manufacturing industry. KBR is one of the largest United States government
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Dramatic speeches Essay The Crucible: Arthur Miller builds up tension for the audience by a skilful use of dialogue, dramatic speeches, entrances and actions. By discussing at least one example of each from Act Two say how he does this. Arthur Millers The Crucible is set in Salem, Massachusetts where they didnt understand either medicine or science. They thought when someone became ill it was because either God was punishing them or witchcraft was at work. The Crucible is based on a group of teenage girls who are discovered dancing naked in the woods, playing with witchcraft. When the girls realised how severe their punishment would be, they claimed other members of the community possessed them. There was no defence against witchcraft. If people denied it they were hung, as they believed they were possessed by the devil. If people admitted it they were put in jail. Anyone who was accused had his or her life ruined. The group of girls lead by Abigail Williams began accusing perfectly innocent members of the community of witchcraft. Usually the people accused were outcasts such as beggars or old women who lived alone, but respectable women were finding they too were being accused. Take Elizabeth Proctor, she was accused because Abigail Williams wanted her out of the way so she could continue her affair with her husband John Proctor. In Act two there is an immense row between Elizabeth and John Proctor about two main points: the fact that Elizabeth has been accused and Johns affair with Abigail. Miller expresses their anger by the vulgar language they use, the exclamations and the questions asked. Then you go and tell her shes a Whore. Whatever promise she may sense break it, John, break it. This was what Elizabeth said to John. This would astound the audience because Elizabeth was a respectable woman and would not be expected to use such ill-mannered language. The fact that Elizabeth had used such language would make the audience unbelievably stunned; it would also increase the tension tremendously. Not only dose Elizabeth use foul language she orders John to go and break the relationship between Abigail and himself. This shows Elizabeths anger, as she is livid and not asking but ordering John to do as she wishes. Elizabeths anger is also shown by the use or repetition: Oh, the noose, the noose is up! Elizabeth is scared as she has been accused and thinks she is going to be hung. She is hysterical and this is shown with the use of exclamations and repetition. This too would make the audience anxious. Half way through Act 2 there is an enormous burst of stimulation and apprehension for the audience. This is when Giles and Francis burst in on a particularly anxious moment between John, Elizabeth and Hale. Giles and Francis intensify the tension by announcing the startling news that both their wives have been arrested. This comes as a shock because both their wives are exceptionally respectable women. The tension is show by the respondents using exclamations. Rebeccas in the jail! This comes as a shock because like Elizabeth, Martha and Rebecca are highly regarded women. Now they have been arrested there is a grater chance that Elizabeth too will be arrested.
Monday, April 6, 2020
Eartquakes Earthquakes: Why They Occur And How To Prepare For Them An earthquake is one of the most powerful natural disasters known to man. Earthquakes are so powerful that they can knock down buildings and bridges as well as change river routes and cause landslides. With all the damage earthquakes cause the only way to protect oneself from them is to be prepared and well educated about them. Since they cannot be predicted one must always be prepared for them. Strict building codes in earthquake prone areas also help to minimize the property damage caused during an earthquake. Earthquakes throughout history have caused several millions of deaths as well as severe property damage. Earthquakes are more complex than one may think they are. Earthquakes most often occur near plate boundaries because that is where the tectonic plates meet. As tectonic plates slide past each other they cause tension on one another. After a while there is so much tension on these rocks that they just snap. The sudden break of these rocks send vibrations out in all directions. Soon after the first vibration is sent out a second vibration is sent out called the After shock. Humans can also cause earthquakes in many ways. ?Injecting fluids into deep well for waste disposal, filling reservoirs with water, and firing underground nuclear test blast, In limited circumstances lead to earthquakes. All these activities increase the strain within the rock near the location of the activities. So that rocks slip and slide along preexisting faults?(Microsoft Encarta 2000). Earthquakes can cause a lot of damage. They are strongest near the epicenter. The epicenter is directly above the point that the earth's crust snaps. The farther from the epicenter the weaker the vibrations of the earthquake are. That means the area close to the epicenter are going to receive more damage and areas farther from the epicenter are going to receive less damage. As well as distances from the epicenter the type of area an earthquake occurs in has effect on how much damage is caused. Under developed countries seem to suffer much more damage than a developed country. Underdeveloped countries have less strict building codes and are not prepared for natural disaster as well as developed countries are. In underdeveloped countries earthquakes cause much more deaths also. After earthquakes conditions often lead to widespread disease outbreaks. Damage to hospitals, water supply lines, sewage lines, and lack of housing all contribute to the widespread of disease. Developed countrie s have the same problems but thier strict building codes, emergency forces, and preparedness seem to minimize the damage and death caused by earthquakes. No matter if a person lives in developed or underdeveloped country earthquakes still cause damage. A tsunami is probably the effect of an earthquake. A tsunami is a group of giant sea waves that get bigger and bigger as they get closer to the coast that usually strike without warning. As these giant sea waves come crashing down on the coast they cause servere flooding that drowns a lot of people instantly and cause a lot of property damage. Along with flooding from tsunamis rivers are often rerouted during major earthquakes and flood whole town. After most major earthquakes there are fires. The worst part of fires after an earthquake is that usually broken gas mains cause the fires. If the gas mains are broken usually the water mains are also broken so firefighters have a hard time finding water to put out the fires. Another effect of an earthquake is landslides. Landslides are very dangerous if they occur because most of the time anything in the path of a landslide is destroyed. Earthquakes are very dangerous for a few reasons. First of all they cannot be predicted and second they cannot be stopped. If an earthquake occurs all that can be done is wait it out. That is why everyone must be prepared for an earthquake. The first item that must be learned about an earthquake is that they can occur at any time and any place. Two procedures that must be done in order to prepare for an earthquake is make an earthquake kit and prepare one's home for an earthquake. The basic earthquake kit should include food
Monday, March 9, 2020
Importance Of Trade Union In Modern Workplace Management Essay Essays Importance Of Trade Union In Modern Workplace Management Essay Essay Importance Of Trade Union In Modern Workplace Management Essay Essay Essay Topic: The Man Of Mode Often we read in newspapers, group of workers of a mill traveling on work stoppage or coming together in privation of some common motivation. These groups of people are known as trade brotherhoods. Trade Unions are group of workers of an organisation or a mill that raises their voice together so that their demands can better be represented in forepart of the governments. They have a common end or purpose. In this epoch, where everyone realizes the importance of workers, trade brotherhoods have a really of import function to play. Originating in Europe, trade brotherhoods became really popular in states during the Industrial Revolution, when the deficiency of skilled workers shifted employment bargaining power about wholly to the employers, doing many workers to be mistreated and underpaid. Trade brotherhood organisations may be composed of single workers or professionals. The most common intent of these organisations is to keep or better the conditions of their employment. Over the past 300 old ages, trade brotherhoods have developed into a figure of signifiers, influenced by different political aims. TRADE Union: Trade Unions prove good for workers, as the chief purpose of organizing this group is to forestall the workers from being exploited by the senior functionaries. For illustration, if a worker is unhappy with the wage he is acquiring he can speak to his colleagues and jointly they can raise their voice to acquire the wage they deserve. Trade brotherhood is even helpful for the direction of the house, as they can cognize the demands of the worker which helps them know workers better and supply them an environment where they are able to work expeditiously and assist them to keep good criterions. Decisions are taken through the corporate bargaining procedure and dialogues between employer and brotherhoods. The relationship between trade brotherhood and employer is called as industrial dealingss. In general footings, trade brotherhoods satisfy their demands through dialogues peacefully, but sometimes other tough actions need to be taken by the brotherhoods. These actions can be in the signifier of work stoppages, work to govern, travel slow, picketing, overtime prohibition, etc. In Strikes, workers reciprocally decide non to come for work. In work to govern, workers tend to be excessively critical ; knock on minor inside informations. In Go Slow, workers work with slow gait so as to slower production velocity. In picketing, workers demonstrate through mottos and streamers. In overtime, the workers refuse to work and so the company is unable to run into the demand. All the employers try to avoid such state of affairss, as such state of affairss lead to loss and even shuting down of the company. In United Kingdom, in order to deliver employers from industrial Acts of the Apostless and employees from being exploited, authorities has created ACAS. ACAS stands for Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service. When brotherhood and employers continue to challenge they can travel to ACAS to decide the affair. It is an independent organic structure financed by authorities. It gives indifferent advises. TYPE OF TRADE UNIONS: There are major four types of trade brotherhoods: 1 ) . Crafts of Skill Unions: This brotherhood consists of all those workers possessing same type of accomplishments. 2 ) . Industrial Unions: This brotherhood represents workers of the same industry. 3 ) . General Unions: This brotherhood is formed by aggregation of workers from different industries and holding different accomplishments. 4 ) . White Collar Unions: This brotherhood represents all the office workers at higher stations. STRUCTURE OF TRADE UNIONS: The construction refers to how the trade brotherhoods are organized. They can be organized on the footing of trades brotherhood, industrial brotherhoods or general brotherhoods. The other method to form trade brotherhoods can be the manner works degree, local degree, regional degree and national degree are interrelated. Plant Level Union- Plant degree is the first and the lowest degree of the construction. This type brotherhood is formed in individual company. Maximum seven members can be a portion of this type, due to this in merely one company there are multiple such brotherhoods. Local Level Federations- Local degree Union is the 2nd degree of the construction. This consists of the works degree brotherhoods at the local degree in a peculiar industry. The local degree brotherhood can be an independent organic structure or can be affiliated with national degree or regional degree brotherhoods. Regional Level Federations- All the local degree brotherhoods of a peculiar province or part jointly come under regional degree Union. National Level Federations- This is national degree organic structure which gives association to all works degree brotherhood, local degree brotherhood and regional degree brotherhoods. These degrees have been summarized below in the diagram: ADVANTAGES OF HAVING TRADE UNIONS: Trade brotherhoods can turn out good to both employer every bit good as the employees. Benefits for Employees: Increased rewards for its members- Industries with trade brotherhoods tend to hold higher rewards than non-unionized industries. Workers tend to be more demanding when in a group. Together when they raise their voice, it is more powerful as the functionaries are scared of the tough actions which brotherhoods might take when there needs non met. Represent Workers- Trades Unions besides protect workers from being exploited by senior direction. Trades brotherhoods can give besides aid workers who might be stuck in a legal job. Important for Service Sector- In modern work force, there is lessening in the power of the trade brotherhood. This is because of a diminution in fabrication and roar in service sector employment. Service sector occupations are by and large impermanent or are of portion clip footing. There are more opportunities of development of workers in footings in this sector in footings of less wage, bad working conditions or fewer inducements. Trade brotherhoods need to be more argus-eyed in this approaching sector. Individual rights better protected- Workers have their single rights better protected. They can non be below the belt dismissed from work, or they can non be racially or sexually discriminated. Member Services- Members of the trade brotherhood are frequently offered benefits of certain scope of services, like Education and preparation on basic accomplishments, employment rights, wellness and safety and other issues ; Legal advice on employment and personal issues ; Discounts on mortgages, insurance and loans from brotherhoods ; And besides welfare benefits in footings of fiscal assistance when a individual is ill or unemployed. Benefits for Employers: To counter balance monopsony power- Traditionally, monopsonies occur when there is merely one house in a town, or type of employment. However, in modern economic systems, many employers have a high grade of market power ( monopsony ) . The on the job conditions, regulations and ordinances, rewards are of determined harmonizing to the market power. More the market power, more will be the control over the trade brotherhoods. Productivity deals- Trades Unions can assist to negociate productiveness trades. This means they help the house to increase production which enables the house to be able to afford higher rewards. This besides helps promoting workers to work expeditiously. Trades brotherhoods can be of import for implementing new working patterns which improve productiveness. Workers are more motivated- When all sort of interests- societal, economic and political, are being looked upon, the workers tend to stay motivated and works expeditiously. This reflects on the quality and gait of the production. This besides controls the abrasion rates which saves the employer from the immense labour turnover costs. Trade brotherhoods help in accelerated gait of economic development in many ways: By assisting in the enlisting and choice of workers. By staying with subject among the work force By assisting in colony of industrial differences in a rational mode By doing societal accommodations. Workers have to set themselves to the new on the job conditions, the new regulations and policies. Workers coming from different backgrounds may go disorganised, unsated and defeated. Unions help them in doing such accommodation. Trade brotherhoods are a portion of society and as such, have to take into consideration the national integrating every bit good. Some of import societal duties of trade brotherhoods include: advancing and keeping national integrating by cut downing the figure of industrial differences integrating a sense of societal duty in workers accomplishing industrial peace PROBLEMS OF TRADE Union: Trade brotherhood can make certain jobs. When there demand goes high, it is hard to command their greed and fit up their outlooks. The employers are frequently in fright of workers traveling on work stoppage. More such jobs are: Creates Unemployment- If labour markets are competitory, higher rewards will do unemployment. Trades brotherhoods demand for higher rewards through the menace of work stoppages, work to govern etc. When the rewards are higher n industry, manufacturers will non be able to afford more which cause ballad offs and unemployment. Ignore Non Members- Trades brotherhoods merely consider the demands of its members ; they frequently ignore those who are non portion of the labour market i.e. the unemployed. They must besides be considered so as to cut down inequalities. Lost Productivity- If brotherhoods go on work stoppage and work fruitlessly ( work to govern ) it can take to lost gross revenues and end product. This will take to closing of the company. This will finally take to loss of occupations. Engage Inflation- If brotherhoods become excessively powerful they can dicker for higher rewards, above the rate of rising prices. If this occurs it may lend to general rising prices. Economy may topple. Decision: This study in short negotiations about trade brotherhoods. The study begins with a brief history about trade brotherhoods and tells us what a trade brotherhood is. It so highlights the types and construction of trade brotherhoods. Then, the turning importance of trade brotherhoods in the modern workplace has been richly highlighted. The study besides tells us the drawbacks of holding trade brotherhoods. The chief aim of fixing this study was to demo the importance of trade brotherhoods in the modern workplace and how they protect the involvements of the workers.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Police Misconduct - Research Paper Example guilty men to walk the street and innocent men to sit in jail, governments should have appropriate measures in place to protect the public from police misconduct. 1) Carnell, Yvette. "Dont Shoot! A Case for Reigning in Rogue Cops." The Atlanta Post. 3 May 2011. Web. 27 May 2011. . 4) "Indian Diplomats Daughter, 18, Sues for $1.5m over police Cells Toilet Humiliation | Mail Online." Mail Online. 25 May 2011. Web. 27 May 2011. . 5) Kaariainen, Juha, Tomi Lintonen, Ahti Laitinen, and Joycelyn Pollock. "The Code of Silence: Are Self-Report Surveys a Viable Means for Studying Police Misconducts?" Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 9.2 (2008): 86-96. Print. 6) "Man Shot 6 times by Billings Police Officer Sues for Excessive Force." The Republic. 20 May 2011. Web. 27 May 2011. . 7) Miller, Joel, and Robert C. Davis. "Unpacking Public Attitudes to the Police: Contrasting Perceptions of Misconduct with Traditional Measures of Satisfaction." International Journal of Police Science and Management 10.1 (2008): 9-22.